Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations & The Theory of Moral

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But if I abort a baby, it is immoral but not unethical. Laws are always expressions of religious thought be they theonomic or autonomous. It could still be the objective phenomenology, rather than the "stance" per se, that matters. (In support of this point, I take it that if knowledge, for example, has intrinsic value then this is uncontroversially objective or 'stance-independent' in nature, regardless of the fact that knowledge is (or involves) a cognitive state, and so might be considered part of the agent's "stance" in some sense.

Twentieth Century Ethical Theory

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Most experts agree, however, that an individual’s moral beliefs, attitudes, and values create an interconnected system that defines the makeup of their personal moral philosophy. It does not matter what values you choose--for there is no right and wrong; good and evil do not exist. Women and the Common Life: Love, Marriage, and Feminism. Psychologists such as Lawrence Kohlberg developed theories which are based on the idea that moral behavior is made possible by moral reasoning.

Adultery, the Forgivable Sin: Second Edition

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Such an analysis can be helpful in training and development, and is arguably also essential in strategic planning and decision-making. For someone who believes this, inflicting retributive punishment on Sally would be no more reasonable than seeking vengeance against Jane. How can we derive a moral quality from a physical quality? Ethics and morals are central issues as the world strives to overcome current challenges and international crossroads.

Solidarity and Difference: The Politics of Enlightenment in

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Prerequisites: Philosophy 32 or 33 or 104 or 105 or 111 or 112 or consent of instructor. This collection thus aims to bring expert practitioners from these literatures into fruitful and innovative dialogue around questions at the intersection of procreation and parenthood. The difference ought to be quite obvious, normative statements express value (or evaluative) judgments, i.e., judge certain actions or behaviors to have value (in this case negative value).

Outlines of the philosophy of religion: dictated portions of

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This skeptical worry should not be (...) confused with a related but much stronger version of the argument, which says that all human lives are very bad and not worth starting. The third element consists of historical studies of particular philosophers, whose views are dissected and displayed in terms of the aforementioned classification. So it's important to ask yourself: What are the most important things you have to say? But in fact, of the 40 subjects in one (typical) early experiment, all went past that point.

Courage: Overcoming Fear and Igniting Self-Confidence

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An interesting feature of al-Farabi's ethics which has no Aristotelian parallel is the discussion of evil. Economist have long taken it upon themselves to redefine social morality when it comes to issues of money and fairness. And he has terms like "disgraceful," "impious"; and specific terms signifying defect of the relevant virtue, like "unjust"; but no term corresponding to "illicit." Should we teach our children to be happy that way?

The Formal And Material Elements Of Kant's Ethics

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Centre for Sri Aurobindo Studies, Ambala City. “We have grasped the mystery of the atom and rejected the Sermon on the Mount. Ethical systems are enforced and codified for the “public good.” Laws are based on the ethical system of a society. The clearest examples of morally right action are precisely those in which an individual agent's determination to act in accordance with duty overcomes her evident self-interest and obvious desire to do otherwise. Rather than merely adding one more ethical theory to the lot, James's essay was a radical assault upon ethical theory as such, "a critical analysis of the validity of any moral theory," "intended to show the futility of that traditional philosophical task" (3).

Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

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These two words are often used interchangeably and the meanings confused. All objects of the inclinations have only a conditional worth, for if the inclinations and the wants founded on them did not exist, then their object would be without value. Respect for such laws could hardly be thought valuable. Does this mean that there is a moral obligation not to make certain intellectual mistakes? Media attention has also recently focused on two court cases that are currently being tried.

An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology and Counselling:

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Second, in the area of human development, there is the matter of deciding for the ethical possibilities given in tradition, in the sense of passing from a conventionalistic affirmation of values to "owning" them, to internalizing them rather than simply following external influences. Our best thinkers have not even decided the content and structure of values--what the hell is involved? If you meant to be asking more than this, if you meant to be asking whether philosophy would die and whether this might be a good thing, then I think you should spend a little time saying why you think the questions philosophers are asking aren't worth asking.

Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from

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If God does not exist, then, as Nietzsche saw, we are ultimately landed in nihilism. These include the rights of animals, the morality of animal experimentation, preserving endangered species, pollution control, management of environmental resources, whether eco-systems are entitled to direct moral consideration, and our obligation to future generations. Many actions we perform are not products of our own deliberation and voluntary judgment (like nervous twitches, coughs, or unconscious tapping of the foot).